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homemade cnc router build

by:YESHINE     2020-06-10
Hello, welcome to all the community of structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Please don\'t forget to vote, share more items and follow me if you like our project.
The total cost of the building is about $550.
So, this time, I showed my seventh project, it\'s the CNC router that\'s in front of you.
This is the toughest project I \'ve ever built before, and it also consumes me a lot of money and time, but when I see the complete building, the end result brings me a huge smile.
I have never done any CNC machines or even any projects about electronics.
When I see the final result, I don\'t have the language to express that moment.
I think a person who dreams of doing a CNC by himself can understand how I feel.
My CNC has a lot of ups and downs throughout the build process.
I have a little understanding of CNC machines, such as how they work, what is needed to make CNC machines, and what type of parts are needed to make CNC machines.
I knew it was a very difficult project for me before starting this project, but even then, I took the risk of building my own CNC machine because it was my dream, I want to achieve it at any cost.
Before I started building this machine, I studied a lot at you tube and watched a lot of CNC build videos all with different designs and sizes.
So I decided to make my own design that made me feel comfortable during the construction, so I made CNC with wood instead of metal.
I know it has a drawback that it absorbs moisture and deform from time to time, but it works very easily, so I decided to keep using it, because I have to draw it with my own color theme and it will definitely prevent moisture absorption.
The overall cutting area of my machine is 760mm X 670mm X 180mm.
I damaged some electronic parts during construction.
I hope you can learn something important from my project and prevent accidental damage to the electronic components.
I also make mistakes a lot during frame build, but I use wood to build CNC so don\'t bother me anymore.
If you are using metal, then be careful when doing arm design and gantry, because in my case, I make a lot of mistakes when making gantry and arm, these.
During this project tour, I showed you my mistakes and the improvements you can make with your machine. A CNC router (
Or computer CNC router)is a computer-
Hand-held routers for cutting a variety of hard materials such as wood, aluminum, steel, plastic and foam.
There are basically five types of CNC machine tools: 1.
CNC Plasma Cutting machine. 2.
CNC laser cutting machine. 3.
CNC milling machine. 4.
CNC router machine. 5.
CNC lathe.
While plasma and laser cutting CNC look similar, the difference between plasma, flame and laser cutting.
CNC flame cutting machine: it is a cutting equipment that uses oxygen or gasoline gas and oxygen cutting in metal materials.
The laser is irradiated to the surface of the workpiece to reach the melting point or boiling point.
In laser cutting, CO2 laser is used in most cases.
What I do is the basic concept is similar to the CNC router of the milling machine.
It has a vertical machining center with movement in the three directions of x, y and z.
The handheld router is connected to the Z axis for processing.
For the movement in the direction of X, Y, Z, I used the ball screw nut of 12mm, the straight line and the straight line drive of 16mm and the stepping motor.
You can also use some other methods to move your axis.
You can also use the method of gears and gears to move your shaft instead of using ball screws.
For large-area CNC, and even for small-area CNC, you can use these alternatives.
The main drawback of the ball screw is that the length is fixed and it is difficult to find more than one lengthmeter.
The stepping motor has different shapes and sizes as well as different torque.
In my example, I used the Japanese 23 stepping motor that generated 10kgm torque to run my machine and the board I used to run the motor was the 3 axis drive board TB-6560.
It is a single chines board capable of running all motors.
I use a 24 v DC power supply for the power supply.
For design purposes, you can use any type of design as per your imagination, or you can find a lot of designs on Google, but here I post my own design.
The CAD file contains all Axis drawings including hole position.
Unfortunately I lost the sketchup file which included all the data I used in CNC production, but I posted some images showing you all the details.
I am always happy to help you if you have any questions.
I hope the drawing will clarify your problem. I purchased my materials and hardware from AliExpress. com.
Here you can find each item at a very low cost.
Before ordering any items from the AliExpress, check your local hardware store first, and maybe you can get these hardware at the local hardware store for a cheap price.
In this step, I will show you all the parts I use in cnc manufacturing.
While you can prefer the larger size of the straight and ball screws to minimize sagging, the thicker the size of the straight and ball screws, the smaller the depression.
Here\'s what I\'m using :-1)
Linear bearing with block 2
Ball screw with Nut3)Linear rod4)
Straight rod support s6)
The combination of spiders
Pillow bearing 10mm8)
Pillow bearing 8mm9)
Thread insert 10)L angle11)Square pipe12)
Alen cap screws 13)
Allen cap screw14)Wood glue15)wood screw16)Plyboard17)Pine wood18)
List of materials for mechanical projects the following is a list of electrical spare parts used by me1.
Tosiba TB6560 3 axis drive plate 2. Mean Well NES-350-
24 v power supply 3.
16 step motor
3 Core 4 core wire 5. Mother board6. Toggle Switch7. Push Button 8. Rocker Switch9. Hard Drive10. DDR2 ram11. Power Supply12.
3-pin and 4-pin connectors.
Shrink sled 14. Wire15. Exhaust Fan16. Monitor17.
Keyboard and Mouse this is a material List of electrical spare parts used here. I posted a picture of the tools used throughout my project.
There are some tool alternatives though.
You can choose a set of tools according to your needs.
Here are the tools I use throughout the project. 1. Miter saw2. Jig saw3. Table saw4.
Palm router5.
Drill press6.
Stripping and pliers7.
Hand drill8.
Welding machine (for metal work)9.
Drill bit and hole saw (
According to their own needs)10.
Grinding Machine and cutting wheel.
Basic woodworking hand tools. 12.
Soldering iron 13.
Paint spray gun or spray can also be used as an alternative. 14.
Disc sander15.
First of all, what you have to build is y-
Shaft, this is the main frame of my CNC, the material I use is 36mm thick pine wood with a wood width of 8 \".
Although this is not the hardest wood, if you want to use wood instead of prefer hard wood. (Note: -
These sizes can be changed according to your ball screw and straight rod.
The size I use for my building is not perfect and you can increase these lengths a little.
It would be nice if you bought those rods and ball screw and then cut your wood into length that needs to be length. )
Edge for longer Wood size for frame = 1180 two shorter edges = 1080mm. If you don\'t want to use wood then you can do it by clamping the wood together and making a thick sheet
The base needs to be heavier.
You can use any type of joint for the joiner, but in my opinion, the joint is because it\'s for your Y-axis. Your Y-
Because the complete CNC depends on it, the shaft needs to be as square as possible.
Try to make it perfect.
The height of the frame plays an important role in the building, because in this linear bracket, the pillow bearing is installed on this frame, the gap between the linear Road and the ball screw plays an important role. if the gap is small, it will reduce X-axis.
Here you can see the image clearly.
Manufacture of gantry and X-arm
Axis is another important step in the construction of CNC system.
In this step, the main goal is to make the CNC gantry as rigid as possible.
You can do any type of design for design purposes, but you have to pay attention to rigidity.
For the material side, I chose to lay instead of wood because it was more resistant to moisture and I left a small piece of laying from my previous project, the attempt to glue the laminate on this shaft is the result of failure.
The picture posted first is the result of the failure, after which you can see the improvement clearly.
The main reason for rejecting the first design is because of instability.
The bottom of the weapon is not wide enough to lose rigidity.
So, if you are designing arm, be sure to be careful when designing.
The arm cutting area you get is wider and vice versa.
If you want to have more cutting space on your CNC machine and get this space, you will reduce the bottom width of the gantry arm rather than it will definitely lose stability during movement
The reason why I told you this is because I experienced this when I was doing the gantry.
In these projects, you can see that I did the design of two gantry arms.
You can easily find the downsides of the design I rejected.
I made this design because I wanted more cutting space.
Although I managed to get more space, unfortunately it wasn\'t rigid enough, so I chose the second one.
When you are ready for your design, it is better to print 1:1 with CAD and stick the template to the workpiece.
If you want the exact parts of both arms, it is better to clip both pieces of wood or board together and cut them at the same time so that the two pieces are exactly the same size and size.
If you are doing something different from what I suggest you do not make your gantry arm too curved, because it is easier to glue the template than the round edge arm if you have a straight edge.
Try using a circular saw to cut a straight line.
If you have a curved area, you can cut the parts with a jigsaw puzzle, you can even cut with a band saw, but I don\'t have a band saw, so I use a jigsaw puzzle to cut the round part.
Do not cut into a precise shape, just give some space for manual polishing to cut it.
For the sanding of the curved part, I use a round bottle, wrap the sandpaper around it, start grinding, and after a few minutes of grinding I get what I want.
A good gantry.
The same thing happened in this case.
But the design is not wrong, the only problem is that I am not in Z-axis.
The photo cut depth uploaded first is limited.
But the final design provides more depth of cutting.
The picture I posted eliminates your doubts.
Although I forgot to click on the final photo of Z
The shaft during the building, but not too complicated.
Clear all photosMaking the Z-
In CNC manufacturing, the shaft is not such a challenging task.
I did two types of Z-in this project-axis.
The main difference between the two axes is that one has a different range of contact and the other has a different range of contact.
The shaft does not contain any complicated shapes, but do not cut too early as it will depend on the gantry arm.
You have to build weapons first, then Z-axis.
You have to take a linear Rod a little thicker than I have, because if your z-
The shaft is a bit heavier than the rod, and there is not much depression.
Although I prevent sagging in my case by making z-
Axis light as much as possible.
Now, in the picture I provide below, you can see two completely different designs.
In both cases, the work is completely different.
In the picture you can see Z-axis.
Templets play a vital role in CNC manufacturing.
Before making any sample, you have a little knowledge of the parts used in cnc manufacturing, such as linear rod holders, pillow bearings and linear bearings, and what distance their holes are located.
Although you can find their different sizes in the chart according to their size.
With the help of these charts and part sizes, you can prepare your own templates as I do.
The external perimeter of these parts is unnecessary when making the template, but attention needs to be paid to the appropriate distance between the holes.
When making any type of template, you always make a reference line in the center of the drawing to perfectly align, because it helps you a lot when you stick it to the wood.
In the picture below, you can see clearly how I can align the template using these reference lines.
If you have to make templates that are larger than the reference line, it is also important to align them correctly and make larger templates.
Here I use square, take one side as a reference and align my template, I repeat these steps for all types of projects.
As you can see, if I am happy with the template, I also use the clip to temporarily fix the template in the position it wants, and then I start to partially glue it.
For adhesive templates, you can use spray glue, wood glue or paper glue as I used in the project because it is very easy to apply and remove.
Fastener drilling is the simplest and key part of CNC manufacturing.
Don\'t take this step lightly, because your bearings and other parts won\'t be able to fit exactly if you do something wrong.
Therefore, whenever you try to drill holes for fasteners, it is necessary to center holes based on your template.
This will prevent the drill bit from moving and provide directions for your tool.
Do not use hand drill drilling in CNC manufacturing.
I always try to prefer bench exercises in order to complete this task.
Don\'t take it lightly, otherwise you will ruin your entire project as it is necessary to drill square holes.
Somewhere, I drilled some holes for mounting the pillow frame and the linear pole frame and tightened the M5 threaded plug-in.
From the image you can see how I use them to secure my accessories with the base, arms and some other areas.
While you can use the build spacers already in the market, or you can make them yourself.
In my example, I made the interval block myself and then installed the motor on it.
This is also something I didn\'t think of when designing.
For the selection of materials, I chose ply sheet to cut them into the required size, and then with the help of the hole saw, I drilled some holes that exceeded the size of the motor coupling, then cut the coupling of the screw ball screw for tightening and the motor.
For the router installation, I will take two ply sandwiches and apply the template, with the help of the hole saw and the jigsaw puzzle, I cut it down according to the design required.
In this step, I tell you how to install the bearing with the arm and other parts.
I\'m in Z-
Because the process of all axes is the same.
The first thing you have to do is hang those linear rods on the pole rack and tighten them, but don\'t forget to insert the bearings into the rod.
Align these bearings to the position to be installed.
Then hang up the piece you want to post.
Don\'t be too tight, give some space and always install the screws diagonally.
Don\'t screw it with the ball nut housing, and don\'t install the ball screws later so you can finish this step first.
Now connect all the screws but keep them missing.
Now start tightening them one by one and moving them back and forth repeatedly.
Make sure your bearings move very smoothly.
By doing so, you can tell which screw is causing trouble so you can leave that screw and tighten the other one.
If you are satisfied with the movement, you can fix the ball nut with that part.
For the installation of the substrate, I installed 2 \"X3/4\" thick layers 1.
5 \"down from the top around so my board can be flush around.
For the motor installation, I made my own gasket with holes inside.
This whole is used to tighten the coupling to the motor.
To support the whole structure and provide a rigid base for the top of the machine, I use a metal bracket instead of using wood because it provides more strength.
For the construction of the table, I use box tubes and steel angels with 2 \"X2\" sizes.
According to the length cutting angle required, I use a grinder and a metal cutting wheel (
Cut your metal stock prefer chop saw).
It gives you clean cutting and is easy to connect during welding.
I used the arc welder for the carpentry, no :-10 welding rods.
In order to install my machine on the exact seat, you can see how I can use the frame to get a reference for the bottom frame and then nail the welded joint.
After that, remove it from the frame and finish the rest of the welding.
If you have a magnet, it is very easy to weld the legs to the corner frame.
Do not finish welding at once.
The adhesive welding is performed first, and then the remaining welding joints are completed.
For the adjustable height of the entire bracket, I used 16mm bolts to weld to the bottom of the leg so that when you turn the bolt it moves up and down to keep the table level.
Although the choice of materials depends on you and your design.
There are a lot of industrial designs for CNC controllers and you can also check them online to improve your own design.
I don\'t see any design, frankly.
I don\'t say that because people believe it\'s true.
When I finished my build and started making documentation for the project, I realized that my design was almost similar to a professional design.
Here are the materials I use in controller making. 1)
Ply sheet 2)
Wood glue 3)Screw4)Paint5)
Below is a list of electrical components for controller Manufacturing 1)
Power supply3)
Driver card4)
Driver Card power supply 5)
Exhaust fan6)
Rocker Switch7)
Toggle Switch8)
Push Button9)
4-pin and 3-pin connectors I have a lot of things in my cnc that I don\'t have in design, in fact, I just found out these things and this control panel has the same situation.
This is part of CNC, I never thought about it when I started this project, because my idea is that I use the cpu cabinet, let it fill all my essentials like I have some components installed inside.
I also have an old dead screen that I think can be used for my CNC and I fixed it by replacing some transistors and now the screen is ready to be used.
When I started installing components in a body, my first thought was to make a drawer under a CNC table with all the components installed, but the idea was not for me.
Then I decided to make my own cabinet with ply.
However, there are also some problems with screen installation.
Then I decided to make a mix of drawers and cabinets with custom screens installed on them.
The idea fully meets all of my needs, more than I arrange all the electronic components in the way I consume as little space as possible.
I didn\'t want it to be like a normal box, so I made a custom tapered front panel, which would definitely add to its beauty.
I asked the double layer controller to remove all the wires because it would look more messy if it was in the upper part.
The front of the cabinet contains all the controls of the components installed in the cabinet.
The downside of this design is that it does not contain any vents for removing hot air, so at the front I made a hole in which I installed the fan, which is an AC fan exhaust more
The controller doesn\'t have much space, because I make it look small and portable, so the main job now is to customize it. made cabinet.
For the motherboard, I cut some areas behind the cabinet to fit the IO shield behind the cabinet.
After that, I installed a computer power supply with a fan outside.
I mode the power supply by welding three wires from the inside and connect to the power supply internally.
I also installed a button to power the CPU on/off.
Now, next to the power supply, I am a VGA connector and a D-
25-pin connector.
This is TB-
Connect the 6560 board.
This is the main brain of CNC.
For the CPU motherboard, I used my old front-end technical board with the Core 2 Duo.
In addition, it has 2 gb of ddr2 ram.
Towards the front, I installed the power supply for the cnc motherboard.
There are 18 next to it-
Watt AC fan for exhaust, next to the Samsung 160 GB hard drive.
For the wire, I drill holes at the bottom of the panel and hide all the wires to make it look clean.
Each component is connected to a separate switch.
There are 5 connectors on the back of the cabinet, each with different functions. The three-
Small connectors are used for motor signals, and two larger connectors are used for the main power supply and for the router.
For the port of the CNC board, you can see how I get the reference of the port, then bring the transfer port on the concealer glue and use this tape to cut off the vent on the back panel.
To connect the wire to the board, I used some lugs to properly connect the wire so it doesn\'t get damaged.
For the joint, I used the weld and shrink sleeve to make the joint more secure and protected.
I also fixed the wire in my own place with hot glue and insulated it to minimize short circuitcircuit.
For the main hub of the power supply, I used a connector, and all the power supplies are distributed on the switch, from there, it goes into the assembly according to the circuit.
After making the controller l, there is now a problem with the location and manner of installing the controller l on the machine.
After designing and finding some old scrap, I decided to make an L-shaped bracket with a board installed on it and on that board I screwed the controller from the bottom.
Now the entire assembly is mounted on its own stand-alone.
For the Led screen, I made a u-shaped design with a small piece of metal welded to the top.
Then I made a whole inside to install the screen.
Now, I drilled a whole carefully on the led screen holder and fixed it with the help of a bolt.
Now the machine looks complete and makes me proud.
I use Artsoft Mach3 software.
Mach 3 converts your PC into a 6-axis CNC controller.
I only use 3 axes (X,Y, & Z).
But your imagination and knowledge can go beyond the 3-axis level.
Programming in Mach 3 or CNC consists of G code and M code, and Mach 3 can visualize and apply the code to the program.
The Mach 3 interface can be highly customizable.
But there must be a little knowledge of CAD/CAM in this software.
After installing the software, you can increase your productivity by turning your PC into a CNC controller.
You can use the lazy cam software to import files as JPG, mp, DXF, HPGL files.
If you don\'t want to learn G code & M code.
You can directly convert the DXF file to G code with the help of Lazycam.
You can download the Mach 3 & Lazy cam software from this link :-
I also uploaded my router settings (MACH 3).
Hopefully these settings will also work for you.
This step is only for those who really want to give their CNC Custom look.
For painting, anything you just need to know some basic steps of painting.
The following are the materials used for painting purposes. 1. Spray Gun. 2.
Paint brush 3. Primer4.
Sanding paper (
100,200,400 sand)5. Thinner6. Paint7.
Masking Tape8.
Before starting my paint work, I sanded everything with sandpaper instead of applying a primer, then polished it with 200 glass sandpaper, and then painted the first layer of paint.
Before applying the second coating I sand of the paint with 400 sandpaper, then apply the second coating.
Make sure to polish your surface before each new coat of paint, and then wipe the dust with my building, I even painted the linear bearing, pillow block, pole frame and ball nut case.
I use painting for painting techniques, but in some places I prefer painting with a brush.
I also use the wood filler to fill in some small cracks to get a smooth finish.
For metal painting, I apply the primer first, then polish and then paint.
I also use concealer glue to bring protection where I don\'t want to draw, linear road bearings, pillow bearings, Rod Holder and ball nut housing can only be installed from the inside so that it can be kept clean, and will not interrupt me during installation.
Cable management is an important point to make your CNC look neat and clean.
It makes your project enjoyable and you get rid of the cable winding as well.
In order to avoid cable winding and do a good job of wire management, there are many projects in the market.
You can use a zip tie strap to tie the cable near the machine and improve its overall look.
Here are the materials I use to improve cable management :-1)Zip ties2)
Shrink Sleeve
Cable trayHere is a trial run of my CNC router.
Here you can see my CNC from every angle.
I am trying to show you all aspects of my CNC.
Feel free to ask if you have a quarry. . .
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